Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale

Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale-Brief

Thomas R. Kwapil

Georgina M. Gross

Paul J. Silvia

Michael L. Raulin

Neus Barrantes-Vidal

Click here to download the MSS and MSS-B Manual and Scales

Click here to email for information about the MSS & MSS-B


The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale-Brief (MSS-B) are questionnaire measures that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy in older adolescent and adult participants.

The MSS and MSS-B were developed following best practices in scale development including: (a) development of comprehensive trait specifications for the three schizotypy dimensions, (b) generation of a large pool of candidate items based on these specifications, (c) review of the items by expert and non-expert reviewers, (d) repeated administrations of the candidate items to large and diverse samples from multiple sources (n=6265) – interspersed with evaluation, modification, and dropping of items, (e) selection of final items based on content validity, classical test theory, item response theory, and differential item functioning, and (f) evaluation of the psychometric properties of the items and subscales in a large independent, cross-validation sample (n=1000).

The MSS and MSS-B have good to excellent internal consistency reliability (see manual for full psychometric properties). The items have high discrimination (based upon 2 parameter IRT models) and they exhibited minimal differential item functioning for sex and ethnicity. Test information curves indicate that the subscales are maximally discriminating at higher levels of the traits. Preliminary findings support the construct validity of the positive, negative, and disorganized subscales.

The MSS contains 77 true-false questions and the MSS-B contains 38 items. The scales were developed on participants aged 18 to 59 and the items are at an 8th grade reading level. The scales can typically be completed in under 10 minutes.


Kwapil, T.R., Gross, G.M., Silvia, P.J., Raulin, M.L., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2018). Development and psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale: A new measure for assessing positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. Schizophrenia Research, 193, 209-217.

Gross, G.M., Kwapil, T.R., Raulin, M.L., Silvia, P.J., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (2018). The Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale-Brief: Scale development and psychometric properties. Psychiatry Research, 216, 7-13.

Kwapil, T.R., Gross, G.M., Burgin, C.J., Raulin, M.L., Silvia, P.J., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (in press). Validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale: Associations with schizotypal traits and normal personality. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, & Treatment.

Gross, G.M., Kwapil, T.R., Burgin, C.J., Raulin, M.L., Silvia, P.J., Kemp, K.C., & Barrantes-Vidal, N. (in press). Validation of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale-Brief in Two Large Samples. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.

Kemp, K.C., Gross, G.M., & Kwapil, T.R. (under review). Test-Retest Reliability of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale and Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale-Brief. Submitted for publication.