Ethical Issues
I.  General issues in psychological research

 A.  Responsibility
          1. Expertise
          2. Competence
          3. Concern with welfare of participants

 B.  Institutional Approval
          1.  Human subjects
          2.  Animal subjects

 C. Risk/Benefit ratio
          1.  Minimal risk
          2.  At risk
                   a.  Lowest risk alternative
                   b.  Anonymity/confidentiality
                   c.  Informed consent
                              1.  compensation appropriate but w/o pressure to participate
                              2.  consent vs assent
                              3.  ability to withdraw consent at any time

         3. Deception
                   a.  Methodological advantages
                   b.  Costs
                             1.  participants (what about informed consent?)
                             2.  profession
                             3.  society

         4.  Debriefing

         5.  Philosophical Guidelines
                   a.  Consequentialist Theories
                            1. Act utilitarianism
                            2. Rule-utilitarianism
                   b. Deontological Theories
                            1.  Act is right or wrong, and we have duty to do what is right
                            2.  Obligatory, permissible, and forbidden duties
                            3.  Three best examples of where duties come from
                                     a.  God
                                     b.  Intuition
                                     c.  Kantian “categorical Imperative” –> Universal Law
II.  Issues specific to cross-cultural psychology

     A.  The Etic and the Emic
     B.  Where’s the implicit contract?
     C.  Power issues