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Overview of Subjective Well-Being Scales

How to obtain permission to use these scales:

These scales are copyrighted by Ed Diener and his co-authors. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is in public domain, and may be used if proper citation is given. Although copyrighted, t he Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) and Flourishing Scale (FS) may be used as long as proper credit is given. Permission is not needed to employ the scales and requests to use the scales will not be answered on an individual basis because permission is granted here.


Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)

The SWLS is a short 5-item instrument designed to measure global cognitive judgments of satisfaction with one's life. The scale usually requires only about one minute of a respondent's time.The scale is in the public domain and therefore you are free to use it without permission or charge by all professionals (researchers and practitioners) as long as you give credit to the authors of the scale: Ed Diener, Robert A. Emmons, Randy J. Larsen and Sharon Griffin as noted in the 1985 article in the Journal of Personality Assessment.

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Scale of Positive and Negative Experience(SPANE)

The SPANE is a 12-item questionnaire includes six items to assess positive feelings and six items to assess negative feelings. For both the positive and negative items, three of the items are general (e.g., positive, negative) and three per subscale are more specific (e.g., joyful, sad).

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Flourishing Scale (FS)

The Flourishing Scale consists of eight items describing important aspects of human functioning ranging from positive relationships, to feelings of competence, to having meaning and purpose in life. The scale was called Psychological Well-being in an earlier publication, but the name was changed to more accurately reflect the content because the scale includes content that goes beyond psychological well-being narrowly defined.

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©2009 Micaela Chan. All Rights Reserved.- Licensed under Creative Commons. Based on a work at